Similarities and Differences between Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)
Both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes share several features. The central characteristic feature shared by both diseases is the consequences of not controlling the blood glucose or sugar. Microvascular complications like eye disease, kidney disease, and nerve disease; and macrovascular complications like heart disease, stroke, and obstruction of blood vessels, especially in the legs and feet are usually associated with both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The major differences between T1DM and T2DM can be summed up in the single word: insulin. The chemical hormone insulin is partially or completely absent in T1DM from the beginning itself. In T2DM insulin is present for long after the beginning of the disease.
Age of onset:
Patients with type 1 diabetes are generally younger than those affected with type 2 diabetes. However, the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes in overweight children is making this difference insignificant for distinguishing type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Patients with type 1 diabetes are commonly thin or normal in weight. Obesity is a central characteristic of people with type 2 diabetes.
Level of glucose:
Patients with type 1 diabetes have higher glucose levels at the onset of the disease Patients with type 1 diabetes . type 1 diabetes generally have blood glucose levels of 300 to 400 mg/dl (16.6 to 22.2 mmol/L) whereas those affected with type 2 diabetes commonly have blood glucose levels of 200 to 250 mg/dl (11.1 to 13.9 mmol/L).
Type 2 diabetes is a hereditary disease whereas life history is usually insignificant in the cases of Type 1 diabetes.
Relation to HLA:
Type 1 diabetes is highly associated with human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Type 2 diabetes has no significant connection with HLA.
Presence of antibodies:
Presence of antibodies is usual in Type 1 diabetes whereas presence of antibodies is rare in Type 1 diabetes.
Severity of onset:
Type 1 diabetes patients are usually very sick at the condition of diagnosis itself. Type 2 diabetes gradually exhibits its symptoms and patients are mildly ill at the condition of diagnosis.