Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)
The insufficiency to control the excessive amount of glucose in the body owing to the deficiency of glucose is known as Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). It is all about the mechanism of insulin and sugar. Insulin is the chemical or hormone that controls the quantity of glucose in the blood. In T1DM, the immune cells and proteins react against the cells that produce insulin and destroying them. Thus Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) can be considered as an autoimmune disease. It is a lifelong chronic disease. T1DM is generally begins in childhood. The term juvenile diabetes is used to refer TIDM in the past since it occurs most frequently in children. In some cases TIDS develops in a later stage of adulthood. The name of the disease changed from juvenile diabetes to type 1 diabetes mellitus considering the lack of insulin often occurs in adults. T1DM doesn’t appear overnight. It often starts dramatically. A sample of blood is taken and its glucose level is measured for the diagnosis of TIDM. The glucose level should not exceed 125 mg/dl if the patient is fasting. The glucose level should not exceed more than 199 mg/dl without fasting. Diagnosis is confirmed only after checking inconsistencies at least at two different times. Patient’s with blood glucose of 300 to 500 mg/dl and an acetone smell on breath apparently have T1DM until proven otherwise. Urgent insulin replacement is required in patient’s with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)
Several symptoms such as abdominal pain, blurred vision, extreme weakness and tiredness, increase thirst, increased urination irritability and mood changes, loss of menstruation, nausea, weight loss despite increased food intake and vomiting indicates the rapid development of TIDM.
The patients of Type 1 diabetes (TIDM) experience frequent urination since the kidney can’t return the entire glucose to bloodstream when blood glucose level is greater than 180 mg/dl (10 mmol/L). The large quantity of glucose urine makes it very concentrated. The body draws water out of your blood into the urine to reduce the high concentration of glucose. The bladder fills up repeatedly as a result of this water and glucose.
Increase in thirst:
The experience of frequent urination increases thirst in TIDM patients. The body begins to dehydrate in accordance with the enormous loss of water in the urine.
The patients lose weight as the body loses glucose in the urine. The body breaks down muscle and fat for energy.
Increase in hunger:
The lack of insulin prevents the glucose from entering to the cells. The cells become malnourished as a result of this. The body becomes increasingly hungry in the midst of plenty of extra glucose in the blood.
The patient feels weak because muscle cells and other tissues do not get the sufficient energy they require from glucose.