Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the form of diabetes that occurs most often in adults. T2DM is generally is associated with obesity and lack of exercise. Type 2 diabetes or T2DM has several alternative names such as adult onset diabetes, noninsulin dependent diabetes or insulin independent diabetes. The main problem in T2DM is not deficiency of insulin but insulin resistance. The body resists or obstructs the normal, healthy functioning of insulin.T2DM is a strongly inherited disease. The insulin resistance is caused by a genetic abnormality and it is worsen by weight gain and deficiency of exercise. Type 2 diabetes frequently appears in people over the age of 40. There are cases of undetected diabetes for several years and may not feel particularly unwell. Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes are minimal and it is usually ignored by the patients. The diagnosis of T2DM depends on finding abnormal blood glucose either in the fasting state or after the food intake. A blood glucose of 126 mg/dl or greater in the fasting state and 200 mg/dl or greater after food consumption are considered as the diagnostic of type 2 diabetes. T2DM is much more complex than a lifestyle and environmental disease. Lifestyle change doesn’t bring productive changes or normalization of blood glucose in patients with T2DM. Doctors usually prescribe several oral agents and an intramuscular drug named Byetta for the effective treatment of TIDM prior to the use of insulin.
Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)
The symptoms of Type 2 diabetes mellitus include fatigue, frequent urination, thirst, and vaginal infections in women.
Tiredness or fatigue is the central symptom of T2DM.The patients feel tired because the body cells fails to acquire the sufficient glucose fuel they required. Even though there is a large quantity of insulin in blood, the body of T2DM patient is resistant to its actions.
Frequent urination and thirst:
Patients with type 2 diabetes urinate more frequently than usual. This frequent urination dehydrates the body and causes thirsty.
The inconsistent rise and fall of blood glucose levels cause the swelling and shrinking of the lenses of the eyes in Type 2 diabetes patients. The vision blurs because eyes fails to adjust quickly to the\ lens changes.
Slow healing of skin, gum, and urinary infections:
Type 2 diabetes leads to the presence of high-glucose environment in the body. The high-glucose environment prevents the proper functioning of white blood cells, which help with healing and defend the body against infections. The bugs that cause infections flourish in the high-glucose environment. Thus T2DM leaves the body especially vulnerable to infections.
High-glucose environment in stimulates the yeast infections. Thus Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by the itching and discomfort of yeast infections.
Numbness in the feet or legs:
The extreme elevations of the glucose causes occasional occurrence of numbness. The experience of numbness indicates the common long-term complication of diabetes called neuropathy. Neuropathy usually takes more than five years to develop in a diabetic environment.
Heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease:
Severe complications such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease or blockage of arteries in the legs occur more frequently in type 2 than in the nondiabetic population.